Disorders related to sexual arousal
One of the disorders with an important negative incidence over the sexual performance of a person is the disorder of sexual arousal, which is characterized for emerging on the course of the second phase that is part of the sexual human response, the plateau. The main disorders of sexual arousal are normally associated to the male population; however some of these disorders also affect women.
One of the disorders associated to sexual arousal which only affects men is the erectile disorder, which constitutes the incapacity for maintaining an erection long enough to consummate penetration and have a satisfactory sexual intercourse, this disorder produces a significant malaise on the person that is affected by it. The erectile dysfunction must be constant for at least six months in order to be considered as a sexual dysfunction, since there are many factors that can trigger this disorder in a temporary way like the intake of certain substances.
The most common causes for the erectile dysfunction are psychological, but such disorder can also be triggered due to biological causes. Though it is fundamental a proper physiological performance to produce and maintain an erection, there are many areas on the brain which are involved in important aspects of sexual performance. For instance, many hypothalamic neurons have connections with the spinal regions that are responsible for the erection. The control for the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is located inside the brain, this control is fundamental for the proper sexual performance, both of the arousal and of the maintenance of erection.
A wide variety of studies has revealed that erectile dysfunction is more frequent on men who have suffered temporal and frontal lesions. The incidence of erectile disorders is increased as the age of the individual is increased due to physiological factors.
Female sexual arousal disorder is the incapacity for having or maintaining the response of lubrication associated to the arousal phase on the entire course of sexual intercourse. Just like in the case of erectile dysfunction, this disorder has a negative incidence over the person that is affected by it. The female sexual arousal disorders include the lack or decrement of vaginal lubrication, the decrement of the sensibility of the clitoris and lips, and the lack of muscular relaxation inside the vagina.
The causes for such disorder include an incorrect procedure or sexual stimulation, when the release of acetylcholine produces signals that trigger the dilation of the arteries inside the erectile tissues. These parasympathetic signals are also sent to the Bartholin glands which are located below the labia minora in order to produce the secretion of the lubrication which is necessary for sexual intercourse and a satisfactory sensation. The incidence of this disorder is incremented as the age of the woman is increased, since the reduction of the levels of estrogens in some stages like menopause can trigger the emergence of this disorder. Another very well known female sexual arousal disorder is the vaginismus, which has a psychological origin and constitutes a phobia.